1. Cavite Mutiny - Filipino soldiers in the fort of San Felipe in Cavite rose in mutiny under the leadership of Sergeant La Madrid. The cause was the abolition of some privileges of the Filipinos. GOMBURZA were arrested and killed because of the suspicion that they were involved in the said mutiny.

  2. El Filibusterismo - Rizal's second novel, published in 1891 in Belgium, with the financial support of Valentin Ventura, who lent him the money to print the book. Rizal dedicated this book to Gomburza, the three martyr-priests. This is a political novel in which Rizal predicted the coming of the revolution.

  3. Insulares - Spaniards born in the Philippines.

  4. Kalayaan - Newspaper of the Katipunan, which first came out on January 18,1896, with Emilio Jacinto as editor.

  5. Katipunan - The secret revolutionary movement founded by Andres Bonifacio on July 7,1892 in Tondo,Manila. It means KATAASTAASAN KAGALANG-GALANG NA KATIPUNAN NANG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN. It laid down three fundamental objectives: Political,Moral and Civic. The political aim consisted in working for the separation of the Philippines from Spain. The moral objective focused on the teaching of good manners, hygiene, good morals and attacking obscurantism,religious,fanatism, and weaknesses of character. The civic aim revolved around the principle of self-help and the defense of the poor and the oppressed.

  6. La Liga Filipina - Founded by Rizal on July 3,1892, in Tondo, Manila, its aims were:

  7. La Solidaridad - Organ of the Reform Movement in Spain, with Graciano Lopez-Jaena as its first editor. Its first issue came out on February 15,1889. Its aim was to gather, to collect liberal ideas which were daily exposed in the camp of politics, in the field of science, arts, letters, commerce, agriculture, and industry. Known as Sol to the propagandists, it became the mouthpiece of the Filipinos in Spain.

  8. Magdalo - One faction of the Katipunan in Cavite, led by Baldomero Aguinaldo, with headquarters in Kawit,Cavite.

  9. Magdiwang - The other Katipunan faction in Cavite, led by Mariano Alvarez, with headquarters in Noveleta, Cavite.

  10. Noli Me Tangere - Rizal's masterpiece, published in 1887. This is a sociohistorical novel based on facts that Rizal gathered while in the Philippines. It is a novel, but not fiction. The novel gained popularity immediately, but the Spanish authorities, especially the friars whom Rizal ridiculed in the novel, prohibited its reading.

  11. Pact of Biak-na-Bato - Agreement made between the Filipinos and the Spaniards, mediated by Pedro Paterno, wherein Aguinaldo and his companions would go into voluntary exile in Hong Kong while Governor Gen. Primo de Rivera would pay cash money to the rebels.

  12. Palabra de Honor - Word of honor, or keeping one's promises.

  13. Peninsulares - Spaniards born in Spain.

  14. Spolarium - The most famous painting of Juan Luna.

  15. The True Decalogue - A political tract written by Apolinario Mabini which became the bible of the Filipino rebels.

  16. Thomasites - American teachers who came to the Philippines in 1901 to teach English to the Filipinos. The first batch of these teachers arrived aboard the American ship Thomas, hence, they were called Thomasites.

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